Increasingly, the management of forest lands in British Columbia must address multiple values. The recognition of the multiple values provided by forests (e.g. quality of life, biological services, non-timber values) has been formalized through provincial legislation (e.g. the Forest and Range Practices Act) and forest certification (e.g. Canadian Standards Association). The management of multiple forest values has typically been framed in terms of sustainable forest management (SFM). SFM has been defined as: ...the balanced, concurrent sustainability of forestry-related ecological, social and economic values for a defined area over a defined time frame (Canadian Forest Products, 2006).
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