The proposed project will help develop approaches and tools that will quantify the short- and long-term habitat conditions that are likely to develop under different forest management scenarios. We propose to use multiple-scenario habitat supply modelling to help identify practices that are likely to maintain desired conditions across large spatial and temporal scales (e.g. landscapes from 100-200,000+ ha and for periods of a century or more). A balanced approach to maintaining timber and non-timber values is a key issue in the development of sustainable forest management plans and future forest products marketing. The proposed work will further the development of specific tools and procedures that can illustrate the maintenance of desired conditions at both the stand (via an ongoing project using TASS ? Tree and Stand Simulator, see Mitchell 1975) and landscape scale (using TELSA - Tool for Landscape Scenario Analyses [see http://www.essa.com/downloads/telsa/index.htm ).
It is necessary to consider the effects of stand management decisions when assessing larger scale landscapes since landscapes are composed of multiple stands, and there is clear information that habitat attributes at the stand level (e.g. stand density, snags, downed wood, etc.) affect a wide range of biota (see extensive reviews in Hunter, 1990, Hunter 1999, Lindenmayer and Franklin 2002). However, stand management alone is not enough to ensure multiple values are maintained. The published literature clearly indicates that there is no one stand-level treatment that can satisfy the habitat requirements of all biota, and species often require the habitat conditions of multiple stand types in their daily or annual activities. Furthermore, especially for wide-ranging species, landscape-level attributes such as connectivity or fragmentation, the mosaic of seral conditions, patch size and edge effects, roads and access, etc. become critical (Hargis et al. 1999, Kramer-Schadt 2004, Forman et al. 2003).
It is important to recognize that forest management is not the only factor that affects short- and long-term habitat supply. Natural disturbances can drastically change both stand structure and landscape pattern (for example, the current mountain pine beetle outbreak or the 2003 fire season), and timber and non-timber resource expectations need to address the uncertainty associated with natural disturbances (Hansen et al. 1993, Gustafson and Crow 1996, Klenner et al. 2000). Our landscape modelling work to date clearly shows that some desired conditions (e.g. old growth management area targets or dispersion) are difficult or impossible to maintain in the face of non-equilibrium natural disturbances (Klenner et al. 2000a, b), and that specific management practices need to be adopted to maintain options in dynamic ecosystems (Bengtsson et al. 2003). Multiple-scenario landscape assessments can help identify unrealistic expectations, and illustrate the utility of specific stand (e.g. variable retention/partial cutting) and landscape management (e.g. aggregated harvesting, road deactivation, etc.) practices that favor achieving and maintaining desired conditions.
Landscape modelling of timber and habitat values is relatively well established in the literature, but habitat supply modelling to address operational issues in British Columbia is not well established. The reasons for this are uncertain as timber supply modelling, a related activity that projects simple indicators of fiber supply in relation to tree growth and constraint assumptions, is well established and is a clearly recognized tool that is used to shape critical aspects of forest management policy. In this proposal, we plan to: (1) enhance the capabilities of the TELSA landscape planning tool to incorporate and track stand-level information, (2) further develop the suite of landscape indicators to reflect current technical information and perspectives (e.g. for connectivity, see Moilanen and Niemi ...
Forest Investment Account (FIA). 2009. Landscape habitat supply modelling to develop and test management scenarios that balance ecological and socio-economic indicators. Forest Investment Account (FIA) - Forest Science Program. Forest Investment Account Report. FIA2009MR403
Topic: FLNRORD Research Program
Keywords: Forest, Investment, Account, (FIA), British, Columbia
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