The soils of temperate and boreal forests are repositories of tremendous biological diversity. Woody debris, including boles, is one of the major energy inputs into the soil. Timber harvesting that removes boles will reduce the diversity of life in soils and make ecosystems less stable. The relationship between Armillaria root disease and Hypholoma fasciculare is presented as an example of a possible source of early stage ecosystem destabilization.
Chapman, Bill, Battigelli, Jeff; Paul, Les; Xiao, Guoping. 1999. Disappearing Large Woody Substrate: A Habitat Change of Biblical Proportions? (in Proc. Conference Biology & Management of Species and Habitats at Risk). Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks. Proceedings - Conference Biology & Management. Vol. 2