Arboreal lichens of the genera Alectoria, Bryoria, and perhaps Usnea are a major winter forage item for black-tailed deer on Vancouver Island. Those lichens grow in the forest canopy and are most commonly available tot he deer as litterfall on the forest floor. Availability of lichen litterfall is one of several key habitat features of old-growth stands that are used by black-tailed deer as winter range.
Stevenson, Susan K.. 1985. Enhancing the Establishment and Growth of Arboreal Forage Lichens in Intensively Managed Forests: Problem Analysis. Ministries of Environment and Forests. Wildlife Bulletin. B-43