The Columbia River is an important transboundary system that generates a host of benefits to the people of the Northwest, both in Canada and the U.S. In addition to myriad instream water uses (i.e., fish and aquatic life), the Columbia River provides an important source of raw water for municipal water supplies, irrigation, livestock watering, and industrial water uses. The river and its tributaries have also been impounded extensively to support hydroelectric power production, water storage, and flood control. Recreation and aesthetics also represent important uses of the aquatic environment that generate both social and economic benefits to area residents. Concerns related to environmental quality conditions in the Columbia River are primarily related to discharges of industrial and municipal wastes. Discharges of heavy metals and chlorinated substances from the lead-zinc smelter in Trail and the pulpmill in Castlegar have been the primary sources of environmental contaminants; however, discharges of treate
McDonald Environmental Sciences Ltd.. 1997. Columbia River Lower Columbia from Birchbank to the International Border: Water Quality Assessment and Recommended Objectives Technical Report. BC Ministry of Environment Lands and Parks
Keywords: columbia river, water quality assessment, water quality, objectives, recommended
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