This report gives a brief overview of the aquatic chemistry for chlorine residuals, of the known environmental impacts of chlorine residual plus other by-products of chlorination treatment, and of accuracy/precision/sensitivity information for analyses of chlorine residuals. There is also an outline of emergency procedures for a chlorine or hypochlorite spill.
There is a considerable body of literature regarding the use of chlorine, hypochlorous acid or hypochlorites to disinfect wastewaters, to reduce effluent oxygen demand and a somewhat lesser body of literature dealing with the environmental consequences of chlorination. W.A. Brungs recently (Oct 1973) published a comprehensive review in the Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation. Brungs has tabulated the following common uses of chlorination: disinfection and control of taste and odour of water supplies and of some foods; disinfection of municipal effluents; lessening of BOD in municipal effluents, somewhat; disinfection and control of larvae in swimming pools; sterilization of fish hatchery water supplies; odour control, clarification and fly control of wastewater treatment plants; antifouling of water-intake structures and cooling systems; and pulp and paper production.
M.J.R. Clark. 1974. Information Bulletin - A Review of "Chlorine Residual". Pollution Control Branch
Topic: Water Quality
Keywords: residual chlorine, aquatic life, toxicity, environmental emergency, chemical spills
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