Various species of wildlife damage conifer trees in natural stands and plantations throughout British Columbia. Most damage is minor, however, some is economically significant. Injuries caused by wildlife can reduce seedling survival, affect stand establishment, alter stand composition, and inhibit tree growth. In addition to direct damage, injuries may increase susceptibility of trees to diseases by providing entry ports for fungi and other pathogens. Most injuries to conifers inflicted by wildlife result from feeding on foliage, twigs, bark, or roots. Other damage may occur from nesting or antler rubbing. The same wildlife species can cause more than one type of damage. If damage is significant, then species of wildlife which inflict the damage must be identified before a management program can be implemented. This injury key allows systematic identification of wildlife species inflicting damage to conifer trees.
Harestad, Alton, Bunnell, Fred L.; Sullivan, Thomas P.; Andrusiak, Lorraine. 1986. Key to Injury of Conifer Trees by Wildlife in British Columbia. Ministry of Forests. Wildlife Habitat Research Report. WHR-23