Reports and References

for Enhydra lutris (Sea Otter)

Reports from BC Conservation Data Centre

BC Species Summary


BC Conservation Status Report

Reports from Other Databases

E-Fauna BC: Electronic Atlas of the Wildlife of British Columbia


Environment Canada's Species at Risk Website


Global Comprehensive Report (NatureServe Explorer)

Species at Risk Brochure

Backhouse, F. 2000. Extinct and Extirpated Species. B.C. Minist. Environ., Lands and Parks, Wildl. Branch. 6pp.


Blood, D.A. 1993. Sea Otter. B.C. Minist. Environ., Lands and Parks, Wildl. Branch. 6pp.

Status Report

COSEWIC. 2007k. COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the sea otter Enhydra lutris in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. vii + 36pp.

Recovery and Management Plans

B.C. Ministry of Environment. Recovery Planning in BC. B.C. Minist. Environ. Victoria, BC.


Fisheries and Oceans Canada. 2014b. Management Plan for the Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris) in Canada. Species at Risk Act Management Plan Series. Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Ottawa. iv + 50 pp.


Sea Otter Recovery Team. 2007. Recovery Strategy for the Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris) in Canada.
Species at Risk Act Recovery Strategy Series. Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Vancouver. vii + 56

Other Related References

BC Goverment. 2015. The Way Back. Hakai Magazine, June 12, 2015, accessed July 22, 2015,


Bodkin, J.L., D. Mulcahy, and C.J. Lensink. 1993. Age-specific reproduction in female sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from south-central Alaska: analysis of reproductive tracts. Can. J. Zool. 71:1811-1815.


Estes J.A. and D.O. Duggins. 1995. Sea otters and kelp forests in Alaska: generality and variation in a community ecological paradigm. Ecological Monographs. 65:75-100.


Estes, J.A. 1980. Enhydra lutris. Mammalian Species. 133:1-8.


Estes, J.A., et al. 1998. Killer whale predation on sea otters linking oceanic and nearshore ecosystems. Science 282:473-475.


Estes, J.A., R.J Jameson, and A.M. Johnson. 1981. Food selection and some foraging tactics of sea otters. Pp. 606-641 in J.A. Chapman, and D. Pursley, eds. Worldwide furbearers conference proceedings.


Garshelis D.L. and J.A. Garshelis. 1984. Movements and management of sea otters in Alaska. Journal of Wildlife Management. 48: 665-678.


Garshelis, D.L., A.M. Johnson and J.A. Garshelis. 1984. Social organization of sea otters in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 62:637-647.


Gerber L.R. and G.R. VanBlaricom. 1998. Potential fishery conflicts involving sea otters (Enhydra lutris [L.]) in Washington State waters. Marine Mammal Commission. Washington, DC.


Jameson, R.J. 1989. Movements, home range, and territories of male sea otters off central California. Marine Mammal Sci. 5:159-172.


Jamieson, G.S., and J. Lessard. 2000. Marine protected areas and fisheries closures in British Columbia. Spec. Publ., Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.:131. 414pp.


Kenyon, K.W. 1969. The sea otter in the eastern Pacific Ocean. North Am. Fauna. 68:1-352.


Keple, A. 1999. Foraging behaviour and diet of the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) on soft-bottom sediments in Kyuquot, British Columbia. Unpubl. undergraduate thesis, Malaspina University-College. Nanaimo, BC.


Kvitek, R.G., C.E. Bowlby, and M. Staedler. 1993. Diet and foraging behaviour of sea otters in Southeast Alaska. Marine Mammal Sci. 9:168-181


Kvitek, R.G., et al. 1992. Changes in Alaskan soft-bottom prey communities along a gradient in sea otter predation. Ecology 73:413-428.


Loughlin, T.R. 1980. Home range and territoriality of sea otters near Monterey, California. J. Wildl. Manage. 44:576-582.


Ribic, C.A. 1982. Autumn movement and home range of sea otters in California. J. Wildl. Manage. 46:795-801


Riedman, M.L., et al. 1994. Breeding patterns and reproductive success of California sea otters. J. Wildl. Manage. 58:391-399.


Riedman, M.L., and J.A. Estes. 1990. The sea otter (Enhydra lutris): Behaviour, ecology and natural history. U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv. Biol. Rep. 90(14). 126pp.


Sea Otter Recovery Team. 2004. National Recovery Strategy for the Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris) in Canada. Dep. Fish. and Oceans Can. Online. Available:


Siniff, D.B., and K. Ralls. 1991. Reproduction, survival and tag loss in California sea otters. Marine Mammal Sci. 7:211-229.


Van Blaricom, G.R. 1988. Effects of foraging by sea otters on mussel-dominated intertidal communities, Pp.48-91 in G.R. Van Blaricom and J.A. Estes, eds. The Community Ecology of Sea Otters. Springer Verlag. Berlin, Germany.


Watson, J.C. 1993. The effects of the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) foraging on shallow rocky communities off northwestern Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Ph.D. dissertation. Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA.


Watson, J.C., G.M. Ellis, T.G. Smith, and J.K.B. Ford. 1997. Updated status of the sea otter, Enhydra lutris, in Canada. Can. Field-Nat. 111:277-286.


Wilson, D.E., et al. 1991. Geographic variation in sea otters Enhydra lutris. J. Mammal. 72:22-36


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